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Model Designer Manual

1. Importing the Scan and Preparation

 

Opening the Model Designer menu 

 

Simply left click anywhere in the 3D working window. Press the ’N’ key on your keyboard. 

 

The Model Designer menu will be displayed on the right hand side. You can use the ‘Models’ tab to enter the menu.  

 

 

Importing the scan

   

You can use any of these import tab.

 

Save, Undo, Redo 

 

Save your work regularly by using the save tab. You can also access the File, Save feature on the upper toolbar, or Ctrl S

 

Undo can also be done by pressing Control Z (both PC and Mac). 

 

Delete can also be done by pressing X, then delete.

 

 

Join & Separate

 

To join objects into a single selection, simply select one object, shift left click on another object, then press join objects. 

 

To split up joined objects - select the objects, then use the Separate Objects tab.

 

 

Reduce Model File Size 

 

Some scan file sizes are very large and can slow down your CPU. Use this feature to reduce the file size. This will reduce the number of vertices, edges and face. 

 

 

Add Colour & Texture ( Matcap ) 

 

When choosing your own colours make sure the Matcap is set to Material. 

 

  1. Select the object, make sure it is highlighted

  2. Press Add Colour

  3. Press the white/coloured tab

  4. Select your new colour in the colour wheel 

 

Tip: To change an existing colour, select the object, then ‘Delete Colour’ first. Go to step 1. 

To set the Matcaps

 

Matcaps are different textures you can work with. Press the arrow.

Some of these reflect the light in certain ways to give the object a shiny or matt appearance .  

 

You can access the Matcap settings by pressing on the Color tab on the menu, or by using the right hand side arrow on the upper part of the Blender window. 

2. Editing Scan Defects

 

 

Trimming Excess Mesh

 

Sometimes it is necessary to trim unwanted mesh from the scan. 

 
  • Select the object

  • Press 'Fast Edit'

  • In the 3D Window, press 'C' for circular select.

  • Wipe over the unwanted area to highlight it.

  • Right click

  • Press 'Delete'​

 

Alternatively, work directly with the mesh in edit mode.

 

How to do this

 

  • Select the scan, make sure it is highlighted 

  • Press tab, to enter into edit mode

  • If all vertices are selected  (everything is orange), either left click in the 3D window or press Alt A, to deselect them 

  • Enter transparent mode

  • Press T, to access the left menu, then use one of the selection tools.

  • Select the area you wish to delete. Press the left mouse button and drag the selection tool over the area to highlight it.

  • Press X 

  • Then delete Faces, or vertices. 

  • Tab, out of edit mode

  • Exit transparent mode

Tips: It is best to delete faces to avoid free floating vertices.  

Trimming Away Islands 

 

Trimming excess free floating mesh is essential for cleaning up scans. When selected, these islands are part of your selection. This means they are not separate objects in the scene.

How to do this 

 

  1. Select the scan, make sure it is highlighted

  2. Tab, into edit mode.

  3. Select a single vertex on the dental arch. ie. the mesh you want to keep. 

  4. Go to the Arch Cutting Tool and press Clean 

Filling Holes

 

Scans can sometimes have holes in them. To fill a hole follow the following steps: 

 

How to do this

 

  1. Select the scan, make sure it is highlighted.

  2. Press Fill Holes

Hints: The holes will be plugged with very few faces. It is best to use the sculpt tool to mimic the mesh of surrounding dental scan.

 

3. Model Making

 

You can only start making a dental model after the scan has been tidied up. All holes need to be filled, there should be no excess mesh floating around and rips need to be repaired. 

 

It is important to follow the sequence below:

 

  1. Aligning your scans 

  2. Arch cutting tool

  3. Cutting Tools *

  4. Patch Up *

  5. Making Bases

  6. Study Models, if not required go to Step 7

  7. Making Dies *

  8. Ditching Dies *

  9. Hollowing *

  10. Articulation *

  11. Export

 

* optional, and depend on the model you are designing. 

 

Tips: All scan editing should be done before extruding the model bases, to preserve the integrity of the mesh.

 

 

4. Aligning your scans

 

Aligning the scans into the centre of the 3D work environment is very important when doing any CAD work. The scans have to correlate with the Blender X,Y and Z coordinates. This will ensure that when you view the object from the ‘Top’ for example, (by using the tilde key navigation function), you actually get to see the object from the top.

 

Aligning the scans into the centre also plays a key role in the model making process, since the walls of the model base are extruded in a vertical direction. The vertical extrusion prevents the bases from flaring out to one side.

 

Aligning the scans also makes navigation easier.

 

 

How to do this 

 

  • Select the scan (for example the upper scan), make sure it is highlighted. 

  • Press ‘Enter Target’

  • Select the opposing scan (this time select the lower scan), make sure it is highlighted. 

  • ‘Name Opposing’

  • Link /Flip

  • The lower model will disappear. Go to highest cusp tips. Shift right click to place the curser. 

  • Press ‘Four points’ each time after you place the curser, or the letter ‘P’. This will place a point or vertex.

  • Repeat this four times only, on highest cusp tips and in a trapezoid like fashion. The points represent a hypothetical visual occlusal table. 

  • Align

  • Use X, Y, Z arrows, to get the orientation correct. 

  • You can Lock, or Unlock the upper and lower. Lock means that you cannot move the models in the 3D window.

  • Further manual adjustment, if required. Both  scans need to be selected: 

 

​​

  1. Press the Tilde Key ~ (if your key board does not have this, please refer to Tilde Key change). First view the scan from the ‘Top’

  2. Use the arrows, or press G then X (to move  the scan into the X direction) or Y (to move the scan into the Y direction), move the mouse. 

  3. Use R to rotate.

  4. Left click when done.

  5. Press the Tilde Key ~ ( to view the scan from the right side, or left side) and repeat the above process.

Tip: Make sure the anterior teeth are facing towards you.​

The Y Axis widget should display the Y. The green line is facing towards you so you cannot see it. 

 

The naming fields should read ‘target’ and ‘opposing’ when performing the alignment. These must not be altered and are used for coding purposes only.

 

5. Arch Cutting Tool

 

 

The arch cutting tool is used to trim the periphery of the scan to create a clean and precise border. The resulting edge is optimal for creating a base for the model, which has a simple and organised mesh structure. Keep in mind, a simple mesh is easier to slice and print. 

 

The prerequisite for using this feature, is that all loose and free floating mesh has been removed, the scans are free of holes, divots, drags etc. 

Editing scan defects are done prior to using the arch cutting tool. If this still needs doing, refer to the editing scan defects section. 

 

How to do this

 

  • Select the scan you wish to trim. Make sure it is highlighted.

  • Find a suitable flat surface to begin the arch cutting line. Shift right click to place the curser.

  • Press Arch Cut. The opposing model will be hidden. 

  • Press E, move the mouse into the direction you want to go.

  • Left click to place a new vertex of the extruded line.

  • Press E, move the mouse into the direction you want to go

  • Left click to place a new vertex…..Continue this way. Alternatively, you can also navigate to the 'Extrude' tab and press on that. This will allows you to left click the entire arch cutting line. 

  • When you get to the other side. Shift and left  click the starting vertex. This means both vertices are selected, the end vertex and starting vertex. ( orange and white ).

  • Press F, to fuse the line. Alternatively, you can  navigate to the menu and press the 'Fuse' button. This will also fuse the two ends.

  • Press Trim

  • Select one face from the mesh of the dental arch. This is very important.

  • Press Clean.

 

 

Tips: The arch cutting line should not penetrate through or go beneath the surface of the scan. It will not work. Keep it on the surface. In flat areas, you can set down less vertices. In convex & concave area, where the mesh is complex, place many vertices, or set down points. 

 

If your cut is unsuccessful, use Ctrl Z, and go back to prior step 11.  In edit mode, inspect the cut and find the area where the mesh is still joined.

 

Press Ctrl Z again, until you get back to the arch cutting line, after step 9.  Relocate the line in the problem area. Select the vertex you wish to move, press G to grab it, and move it to a better location, left click to set it down. Continue as usual, press Trim, as in step 10.

 

Navigating while using the Arch Cutting Tool is only possible when you set down the line. It is impossible to navigate while in the extrude mode.

 

Remember to select one of the faces before you press 'Clean'. We need to let Blender know what mesh we want to keep (in our case, the dental arch) and the mesh we want to delete (the remaining lower mesh).

 

 

 

 

 

6. Cutting Tools 

 

All cutting tools are offset from the surface of the object. 

 

Always align the cutting tool by viewing it from directly above. 

 

How to do this

 

 

  • Selected the object, make sure it is highlighted, 

  • Use the curser as a starting point for placing the cutting tool. Shift and right click.  

  • Navigate to the menu and choose the cutting tool you want to use. This will position the cutting tool in the area of the curser. 

  • Press A. (If the vertices in the tool are not all selected ie.highlighted in orange) This will select all vertices in the cutting tool. If you require more vertices press the + sign for the cutting tool of your choice.

  • Press S, to scale the cutting tool

  • Press G, to grab it and relocate the tool over the area you wish to cut. Since the cutting tool is offset at a  distance away from the surface of the object, always align the cutting tool from your vantage point to the part you want to cut. In other words aim it over the area you want to cut. There is no need to turn the model, keep the model as it is.

  • To shape the cutting tool, press Alt A to deselect all the vertices in the cutting tool. Select one single vertex in the tool, then use G, to grab it and relocate it. Left click to set down the vertex. Do this to shape the tool.

  • Choose either Keep Outside (this will delete all the mesh contained inside the boundaries of the cutting tool) or, Keep Inside (this will keep the mesh contained within the boundaries of the cutting tool, and delete all mesh surrounding it).

  • When satisfied with the location of the cut, press 'Accept'. This will finalise the process.

 

Tip: To delete the cutting tool, if you choose not to use it. Press A, to select all the vertices in the cutting tool, Press X, then delete vertices. 

 

 

  • Press S, to scale the cutting tool

  • Press G, to grab it and relocate the tool over the area you wish to cut. Since the cutting tool is offset at a  distance away from the surface of the object, always align the cutting tool from your vantage point to the part you want to cut. In other words aim it over the area you want to cut. There is no need to turn the model, keep the model as it is.

  • To shape the cutting tool, press Alt A to deselect all the vertices in the cutting tool. Select one single vertex in the tool, then use G, to grab it and relocate it. Left click to set down the vertex. Do this to shape the tool.

  • Choose either Keep Outside (this will delete all the mesh contained inside the boundaries of the cutting tool) or, Keep Inside (this will keep the mesh contained within the boundaries of the cutting tool, and delete all mesh surrounding it).

  • When satisfied with the location of the cut, press 'Accept'. This will finalise the process.

 

Tip: To delete the cutting tool, if you choose not to use it. Press A, to select all the vertices in the cutting tool, Press X, then delete vertices. 

 

 

7. Face Orientation

 

The Face Orientation check box can be used to see if there are any flipped normals. Flipped normals are sections of the mesh which have been inverted during some form of mesh editing process. This means that faces of the mesh which would normally show outwards, have been inverted and are now showing inwards. 

 

When the check box is ticked, the outside facing mesh should always be displayed in blue. The inside mesh should always be displayed in red. If the outside facing mesh is displayed in red, this means you have flipped normals. 

 

To correct this, use the Flip Normals tab. 

 

Flipped normals can result in the model not slicing correctly. It can also cause difficulties when printing. You can use the checkbox to inspect your work. 

 

Tip: If you see the surface of your work appearing darker or becoming shaded in a peculiar way, always check to see if you have flipped normals. 

8. Patch Up

 

This feature is used with a solid model. The magnet icon need to be  selected on the upper part of the window.  This will make the sphere stick to the surface of the model.  

 

How to do this

 

  • Select the model

  • Shift & right click, to place the curser directly in the defect.

  • Press Patch Up

  • Use S, to scale the sphere

  • Use G, to grab it and to relocate the sphere.

  • When the sphere is highlighted, Press Shift D. This will  duplicate the sphere into and oblong structure. Set it into position with a left click. You can repeat this several times, depending on the size of the defect

  • To submerge the sphere/oblong structure, deselect the magnet icon on the top toolbar. 

  • Select the highlighted ring, or choose any ring.

  • Press G, to grab it and relocate it.

  • Press the magnet icon.

  • Press Fill

  • Press Sculpt on the menu, or stress T. 

  • Select one of the Blender Sculpt tools on the left hand side menu. eg. Flatten and smoothing tool.

  • Exit Sculpt on the menu.

 

 

 

 

 

9. Making Bases

 

The model bases should only be constructed after: 

 
  • The scans have been edited so that they are free from defects, like holes, drags, divots, rips etc.

  • The scans have been correctly aligned into the centre of the 3D work environment.

  • The scans have a neat border finish. Any irregularities in the mesh along the border, may result in overlapping vertices when the bases are extruded.

 

 

How to do this

 

  • Select the scan, make sure it is highlighted

  • For an upper scan, press Upper Base. For a lower scan, press Lower Base. You can also use the 'with border' button to make the base.

 

 

Tips: There is some leeway given with some irregularities along the border, but it is always safer to have a clean and precise finish line. Always consider the integrity of the mesh when designing your work. A crease along the periphery for example may cause problems later on with slicing and printing.

 

 

Scaling Bases

 

Bases can be scaled in two ways. Either, 

 

  1. Immediately after the base is created

  2. At a later stage. 

 

1. How to do this 

 

Immediately after pressing Upper or Lower Base. 

 

  • The model must still be selected from the procedure above.

  • Press on Scale. You should see the uppermost vertices highlighted in orange & you are currently in edit mode.

  • Use the vertical or blue arrow to scale the base upwards or downwards.

  • Press Apply.

2. How to do this

 

Scaling a model base can be done at a later stage, for example, after the dies have been made or the model has been hollowed and filled.

 

  • Select the model. If you have dies, you will need to do a multiple selection to include all the dies.

  • Use the tilde key ~  

  • Select Front. 

  • Tab into edit mode

  • Go into transparent mode. This is very important. 

  • Move the mouse to the corner of the model base and press B.

  • While holding the left mouse button down, drag a selection rectangle to include only the vertices on the floor of the base. 

  • Use the blue vertical arrow and scale the base accordingly.

  • Tab, out of edit mode.

  • Exit transparent mode.

10. Making Dies & Ditching

 

There are two ways of making dies. 

 

  1. You can design a conventional die with a large perimeter around the entire tooth. The die is then ditched along the margin of the tooth preparation. This is best used when the tooth preparation is sub gingival and the margins are tricky to find. The model base should be broad enough to allow the insertion and removal of a large die without compromising the walls of the model.

  2. You can design a die which is extruded directly from the margin of the tooth preparation downwards. This is best used when the teeth are very close to each other and the model base is very narrow. This scenario is ideal for small lower anterior teeth, where there is insufficient space for a conventional die. 

 

 

Separate Die, then ditch

 
  • Position the model so you can see the tooth preparation  directly from the above.

  • Shift and right click to place the curser where you want the cut line to begin. This should ideally be on a convex surface along the gingiva adjacent to the tooth preparation. Do not place it into the sub gingival crevice. Stay on the highest gingival contour.

  • Press 'Draw Die'

  • Press E, to extrude the line.

  • Left click to set down the line. A new vertex will be placed.

  • Press E, to extrude the line.

  • Left click to set down the line. A new vertex will be placed.

  • Continue this way, until you get back to the starting point.

  • Double select both the starting and the end vertices. 

  • Press the 'Fuse' menu tab.

  • Press Elevate once. Then turn the model to inspect  the line.  Make sure the cut line is offset from the surface of the model. If not, then continue pressing the elevate while viewing the tooth from  above. This will raise the line.

  • When thoroughly offset. Turn the model to view the tooth from above.  

  • Press Make Die

  • Set the offset. The gap between the die and the dental model. 

  • Turn the model so you can view the model from underneath. remember to press down the middle mouse wheel to turn the scene. You should see the outer edge or perimeter of the die highlighted in orange. (this is called an edge loop)

  • Press G, and relocate the die into the centre of the base.

  • Use S, to scale the lower part of the die. Don’t make it larger, because the  die will not be able to be inserted into the model. ( If the upper edge loop becomes  deselected, then use Alt and left click on one of the edges of the edge loop. The edge is the line between the dots which are the vertices. This will reselect the upper edge loop. With some computers try double clicking the edge loop to reselect it ) When happy with the scale or relocation, left click.

  • Turn the model to view the tooth from the top.

  • Press Cut Die.

  • To ditch the die. Turn the die to view it from the top.

  • Select the die,  place the curser on the tooth prep margin, where you want the outline to begin. Shift and right click. 

  • Press Draw Margin. Other objects on the scene will be hidden so you can focus on this task.

  • Press E, move the mouse into the direction you want to go.

  • Left click to place the vertex of the extruded line. 

  • Press E, move the mouse into the direction you want to go

  • Left click to place the vertex…..Continue  this way.

  • When you get to the other side. Press the 'Fuse' tab on the menu.

  • View the die from the top. Press Tool

  • View the die from the side

  • If you need to trim excess and loose gum around the tooth preparation - Use Alt and left click, on an edge of the lowest edge loop. This will select the entire edge loop.  Use transparent mode if you cannot see the edge. (You can scale all three edge loops. You cannot scale the edge loop belonging to the margin of the tooth preparation).

  • Press S, then scale the edge loop outwards as required, and left click.

  • Alt and left click, on the upper edge loop to select the upper edge loop.

  • Press S, to scale the edge loop. This will trim any loose mesh surrounding the tooth preparation. Left click when satisfied.

  • Press Ditch.

Tips:  If additional vertices are required for drawing the margin. Left click one vertex, shift and left click on the adjacent vertex, move to the menu and press the + sign. This will place an additional vertex in between the two selected ones. 

Die & Ditch ( in one unit ) 

 

 

  • Position the model so you can see the tooth preparation directly from the above.

  • Shift and right click to place the curser where you want the ditch line to begin. This should ideally be on the visible margin of the tooth preparation.

  • Press Draw Margin

  • Press E, to extrude the line. 

  • Left click to set down the line. A new vertex will be placed.

  • Press E, to extrude the line.

  • Left click to set down the line. A new vertex will be placed.

  • Continue this way, until you get back to the starting point.

  • Press the 'Fuse' tab to fuse the line 

  • Instead of pressing 'Tool', (as in the previous section), this time go straight to the Making Dies menu. Press 'Make  Die'.

  • Set the offset. The gap between the die and the dental model.

  • Turn the model so you can view the model from underneath. Remember to press down the middle mouse wheel to turn the scene.You should see the outer edge or perimeter of the die highlighted in orange. If it is not  selected use alt and left click one of the edges of the edge loop. Some computers, double click the edge.

  • Press G, and relocate the die into the centre of the base by moving your mouse.

  • Use S, to scale the lower part of the die. Don’t make it larger, because the die will not be able to be inserted into the model. Left click when satisfied.

  • Turn the model to view the tooth from the top.

  • Press Cut Die.

  • Press unhide on the menu, or Alt H.

Tips: Follow the tooth preparation as closely as possible by navigating the model to get the best vantage point. The outline will try and detect the margin based on the geometry of the mesh.

 

Please note, when doing multiple dies, other dies will be hidden in the process, so you can focus on doing one die at a time. Simply press unhide when you are done.

 

If you require more vertices while outlining the margin, select two vertices next to each other and use the + sign on the Ditching Dies menu.

 

For more die making options please watch the tutorial. 

11. Cutting out teeth

 

Individual teeth can be cut into removable dies, or tom extract teeth from the model.  

 
  •  Select the model. Shift and right click to pace the curser in the area of the tooth you want to remove.

  • Press draw Gum-Line. Draw a line around the tooth using 'E' and left click. Go through the surface mesh, between the teeth.  

  • When you get to the other side, shift and left click the starting vertex, then press 'F' to fuse the line.

  • Press 'Mark Gum-Line'.

  • Select a vertex close to the inter-proximal contact point between the teeth. draw a new line over the contact point. make sure the line is offset away from the surface of the model

  • Fuse the line with a vertex on the other side.

  • Press 'Enclose contacts' 

  • If you want to make a die, from the tooth, press 'Make Die' on the 'Making Die' menu.

  • Otherwise, for ttoth removal, press 'Enclose Base'. 

  • Press 'Remove Tooth'. Please watch the video tutorial for a demonstration.

12. Hollowing

 

There are several infill effects when hollowing a model. These are the  Solid Honeycomb, the Vented Honeycomb, the Gyroid and a plain Hollow effect. 

 

How to do this

 

  • Select the model, make sure it is highlighted

  • Press Make Hollow

  • Set your wall thickness (optional). 

  • Choose the infill. Eg. Honey Vented

  • Drag the blue vertical arrow upwards. Not too far, otherwise it will close up again, just go a little lower.

  • Press, Apply

 

 

If you have individual dies, these will need to be trimmed. 

 

  • Press Tilde ~ , then view either from the front or the side. 

  • Select the die, make sure it is  highlighted

  • Shift right click to place the curser on the die.

  • Press Square Cutting

  • Press A, to select all the vertices in the square cutting tool, if the vertices are not selected

  • Use S, to scale the square and G to grab it and relocate it to the area you want to cut. Use the left click to set the tool into position.

  • Press Keep Outside. You can still scale the tool and relocate it.

  • Press 'Accept'. This will finalise the cut.

 

 

 

 

If you have multiple dies, you can join these and make one single cut to shorten them.  

  • Select one die

  • Shift left click the next, continue a multiple selection for all the dies. 

  • Shift right click to place the curser on one of the dies.

  • Press Square Cutting and follow the step above.

  • Select one Die, you will see both outlined, then press Separate.

Tips: If you would like to scale the base.

Check out scaling bases at a later stage.

Please be patient after you choose the infill, Blender will take a little time to do the necessary calculations.

 

13. Labelling 

 

To add text:

  • Select the model, make sure it is  highlighted

  • Shift and right click to place the curser in the area you want the letters to begin

  • Press Add Text

  • Type your label

  • Press tab, to enter into object mode

  • Use G, to grab it and to relocate the text

  • Use S, to scale the text

  • Use the extrude slider to the right of the  Add Text tab to set the depth of the text.

  • Press either Emboss or Engrave

 

Changing the Font 

 

  • Open another window, move the mouse to the upper edge of the Blender window and by  holding the left mouse down, drag open a new window. (wait for the cross to appear)

  • Arrow down the Editor Type icon. 

  • Press on Properties

  • Make sure your model is selected and highlighted

  • Shift right click to place the curser, where you want the text to begin

  • Navigate to the ‘a’ text icon 

  • Arrow down on Font

  • Press the folder icon. Access the Model Designer font folder and select a different font. You can also search for your own font folder on your computer.

  • Open font

  • Move back to the model and start typing your label. Follow step above

13. Articulation

 

 

The module includes two ways of securing the upper model to the  lower model. You can choose between a pin-like structure or a hinge type articulator. 

 
 

For the pins, you can place several around the dental model to hold the bite in position. 

 

The hinge articulator has a small vertical stop, but ideally requires a standard nylon lock nut screw (size M4, 20mm or longer), to secure the vertical dimensions of the bite.

 

There is no need to purchase these individually from the Blenderfordental shop.  

 

Pin Articulation

 

  • Press Articulator

  • When moving or scaling the structure always ensure that both the upper and lower components are selected together. Left click on the  lower, shift left click on the upper. Here you can use the Join Objects tabs and Separate Objects tab (this is optional)

  • Use the direction arrows to move the pin-like structure

  • Use the Tilde ~ key to view the pin from the top. 

  • Navigate to the wireframe icon on the upper right hand side of the Blender window and select it.

  • Use the R key to rotate the base of the pin structure, so that it is  alined with the base of the dental model.  The long end with the B4D label will be pertly submerged into the dental model.

  • Use the G key, to grab it and to locate it where you want to place it. 

  • Ensure the cylinder does not penetrate into the model, only submerge the base.

  • For another Pin, press Copy on the menu.

  • Press G, then move the mouse

  • Repeat step 6-8. Then repeat the process for any more pins you would like to place.  

  • Exit wireframe mode

  • Use the Tilde ~ key, then view the models from the side.

  • Select one of the pin-like structure. If you they have not been joined as in step 2, make sure both upper and lower components are selected. 

  • Press T, to access the scale function on the right hand side  pop up menu. 

  • Use only the blue, vertical arrow to scale the structure.

  • Access the directional arrow icon.

  • Use the blue, vertical arrow to relocate the structure in a vertical direction. Repeat this action for all of the pin-like structures. 

 

If you need to edit an individual part on its own, because it is incorrectly aligned or is standing away from the base. Do the following: 

 

  • Separate the objects, if you  have used this feature.

  • Select either the lower or the upper arm of the component.

  • Press Edit (the upper edit on the menu)

  • Use the directional arrows to extrude the base plate. 

  • Use 'S' and 'X', or 'S' and 'Z' to expand the front section.

  • Submerge the base into the model

  • Press tab, to exit edit mode.

 

 

To rotate an individual arm

 

  • Simple select only the upper and or the lower arm

  • Use the Tilde ~ key to view the model from the top or the bottom

  • Press R, to rotate. (you can also use R and Z, which will perform a rotation around the z axis)

 

 

Tip: When exporting your work, make sure that all the upper pin-like structures are included in your selection choice for printing the upper model. Do the same for the lower model, include all the lower pin structures when printing the lower model. The upper and the lower parts must be separated from each other at this stage.

 

 

 

Hinge Articulation

 

When moving the articulator always make sure both the upper and the lower components are selected. This articulator cannot be scaled.  

  • Press Hinge Type

  • Use the directional arrows to  initially relocate the articulator

  • Use the Tide ~ key, view the models from the top. Fine tune the location by using the arrows.

  • Use the Tide ` key, to view the models from the side. Adjust the vertical height to fit the articulator uniformly between the models. (you cannot scale the hinge articulator)

If the articulator appears longer than the dental models follow the steps  below 

 

  • Select the upper or lower model. If you have individual dies, include all  of these in your selection, by shirt and left click each one. 

  • Use the Tilde key to view the model from the side.

  • Use the transparent icon. ( left icon )

  • Press tab to enter into edit mode.

  • Press B, then drag the selection box to include only the uppermost/lowest vertices of the model, depending which model you are working with.

  • Use the blue vertical arrow to scale extrude the vertices into the z direction to match the height of the articulator.

  • Press tab to exit the edit mode.

  • Exit the transparent mode

  • Repeat this process for the lower model.

 

Tip: To access transparent mode, you can also check the small x-ray box in the study model section.

 

 

If the articulator appears shorter than the dental models follow the steps below. 

 

  • Select the upper and lower component of the articulator

  • Use the tilde key to view the model  from the side

  • Go into transparent mode

  • Tab into edit mode. (if all vertices in the articulator arm are highlighted in orange, either left click in the 3D viewport or press Alt A, to deselect the vertices).

  • Press B, then drag the selection box to include only the  uppermost/lowest vertices of the articulator arm.

  • Drag the vertical arrow to extrude the base of the arm in line with the length of the model base.

  • Press tab, to exit edit mode.

  • Exit transparent mode.

  • Repeat this process for the opposite side.

 

Tip: Make sure that the base of articulator is in line with the base of the model. These have to both sit directly on the build plate when printing. If you are unsure, submerge the your work slightly below the build plate prior to slicing (check with your software, if you can do this)

 

 

 

Extruding the arm of the articulator to submerge into the model 

 

  • Select the upper arm of the  articulator

  • Press edit. To the right of Hinge Type.

  • Use the green directional arrow to drag the arm and submerge it into the body of the dental model. Do not select the front face of the arm, this will create difficulties with the extrusion  process. Only use the arrows.

  • Use S, followed the X, to scale and to broaden the arm.

  • Repeat this process for the opposing lower articulator arm

  • Tab out of edit mode.

 

 

 

 

To cut away the excess of the articulator arm in the base of the model (usually if you have a hollow base with individual dies)

 

  • Use the Tilde ~ key to view the model from the top

  • Select the articulator arm. 

  • Shift right click to place the curser on the arm

  • Press Lasso

  • Outline the selection you want to delete.

  • Press Keep Outside

 

 

15. Study Models

 

To use the study model feature first make sure the models are correctly aligned, trimmed and based as described in the previous steps.

 
  • Select the upper model

  • Name Upper (the word ‘upper’ will appear in the naming field)

  • Select the lower model 

  • Name Lower (the word ‘lower’ will appear in the naming field)

  • Import Study Model

  • From the top view (in transparent mode), use the arrows to relocate the dental models to fit into the study model bases. Hold the left mouse button down on the arrow and move the mouse

  • Use R, to rotate. Left click to set it into position.

  • Use S, to scale the study model base. ( this will change the dimensions of the ABO standards, if possible, rather use the cutting tools to trim the dental models smaller )

  • Uncheck the Show x-ray box, to exit transparent mode. 

  • Use the Tilde key to view the models from the front

  • Left click to select one of the vertical planes. Use the vertical arrow to adjust to the ideal height

  • Repeat this for the other plane. 

  • Turn to view the model from the back, if you want to improve the flow-in effect between the dental model and the study model base.

  • Select the plane

  • Press edit 

  • Choose a vertex which lies against the surface of the dental model

  • Press G, then Z. This will grab the vertex into the Z or vertical direction. Move the mouse. By rolling the mouse wheel, you can set the effectiveness of the area you are moving.

  • Repeat the above process for all other areas you wish to re-adjust. Do this for the opposing plane as well.

  • When done, press Upper Base. 

  • When the upper study model base has appeared, press Lower Base.

  • Tip: To hollow your study models please have a look at the hollowing section.

 

 

16. Occlusal Mapping